Indocyanine Green Angiography to Prognosticate Healing of Foot Ulcer in Critical Limb Ischemia: A Novel Technique

Published:April 18, 2018DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2018.02.021

      Background

      To predict wound healing in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) is an ongoing issue. Current methods such as ankle-brachial index (ABI), color Doppler and transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TCPO2), and computed tomography angiography are lacking in demonstrating regional perfusion. Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) has the potential to provide regional perfusion information lacking in other methods. This study was conducted to demonstrate successes of revascularization procedure in CLI patients based on ICGA data.

      Methods

      A total of 47 patients with grade 2 or grade 3 University of Texas Wound Classification System ischemic foot ulcer undergoing lower limb revascularization procedure were included in this study, from July 2014 to May 2016. ICGA with intravenous 0.1 mg/kg of 0.1% indocyanine green dye was performed before and after revascularization procedure. ICGA data maximum unit, blush time, and blush rate were compared between prerevascularization and postrevascularization data, along with ABI and TCPO2.

      Results

      Out of 47 patients (45 males and 2 females), 43 underwent endovascular revascularization and 4 underwent open procedure. Of all, 76.6% of patients were diabetic and 46.8% were hypertensive. Also, 31.9% had coronary artery disease, 21.2% had history of cerebrovascular disease, 23% had chronic kidney disease, and 74.4% were chronic smokers. A total of 37 patients' ulcer healed completely on follow-up with significant improvement (P < 0.05) in preoperative and postoperative ABI, TCPO2, and ICGA data. Ten patients' ulcer did not heal in the follow-up period. In those 10 patients, preoperative and postoperative ABI and TCPO2 improved, but ICGA data were not improved postoperatively (P > 0.05).

      Conclusions

      ICGA is an evolving tool to quantify regional perfusion in CLI. ICGA parameters provide qualitative real-time visual images of perfusion in area of interest as well as quantitative information of perfusion.
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