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Clinical Outcomes of a Diagnostic and Management Protocol for Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome at a Large Referral Center

Published:April 20, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2022.04.001

      Background

      Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome (PAES) is a rare clinical entity without a standardized algorithm for diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of a unique diagnostic and management algorithm for patients with PAES managed at a quaternary referral center.

      Methods

      We retrospectively reviewed patients diagnosed with PAES at a single institution between 2013 and 2021. Demographics, physical exam findings, noninvasive imaging results, and angiographic images were assessed to validate a diagnostic and management algorithm (Figure 1). Surgical findings, operative technique, post-operative complications, and symptomatic improvement were assessed to validate this clinical algorithm.

      Results

      There were 35 extremities in 23 patients treated for PAES (Table I). The mean age was 28, and 82.6% of patients were female. Physical exam revealed a decrement in pedal pulse with provocative maneuvers in 90% of treated limbs. Noninvasive studies to include treadmill exercise testing revealed a mean Ankle-brachial indices (ABI) drop of 0.28 and positional duplex demonstrated that the mean peak systolic velocity (PSV) in the popliteal artery was 78 cm/sec at rest which increased to 175 cm/sec with provocation. Diagnostic arteriography was performed in all patients and revealed awell-developed geniculate and sural collaterals in 100% of the treated limbs and complete effacement of the popliteal artery with active provocative maneuvers in all treated limbs (Figure 2). Surgical exposure was performed via a posterior approach and intraoperative completion duplex was performed in all cases. Type III PAES was discovered in 89% of cases. Arterial reconstruction was required in 2 patients who presented with an occluded popliteal artery. All but one patient was discharged on post-operative day one. Wound complications occurred in 4 limbs (3 patients) and included seroma and hypertrophic scarring. All patients experienced symptomatic relief with a median follow-up of 4 months.

      Conclusions

      We reported 100% technical and clinical success in patients with PAES diagnosed and managed using our clinical algorithm. Cross-sectional imaging is not necessary for the diagnosis. Dynamic angiography confirms the diagnosis and intraoperative duplex is essential for successful clinical outcome by confirming complete release of the popliteal artery.
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