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A Contemporary Comparison of Cyanoacrylate, Radiofrequency, and Endovenous Laser Ablation on Healing of Active Venous Ulceration

Published:April 22, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2022.04.031

      Background

      The goal of this study is to compare the healing rates of active lower extremity venous ulcers for patients receiving one of 3 ablation methods, compare their complications, and identify factors affecting successful healing and prevention of recurrence.

      Methods

      For this study, data were collected retrospectively on 146 patients at a single institution, tertiary referral center, with an active venous ulcer who underwent ablation therapy via cyanoacrylate (VenaSeal), radiofrequency (RFA), or endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) from 2010 to 2020.

      Results

      The study showed a nonsignificant difference in days to ulcer healing postintervention between ablative techniques, with 80.8 days for cyanoacrylate ablation (n = 15), 70.07 for RFA (n = 44), and 67.04 days for EVLA (n = 79). A similar, nonsignificant trend was observed for ulcer recurrence, with a rate of 35.7% (5/14) for cyanoacrylate ablation, 26.7% (20/75) for EVLA, and 23.1% (9/39) for RFA. The same nonsignificant trend occurred with deep venous thrombosis following the procedure in 6.3% (1/16) of cyanoacrylate ablation, 4.8% (4/84) of EVLA, and 2.2% (1/46) of RFA cases. The rate of endovenous glue induced thrombosis was also higher (6.3%) for cyanoacrylate than endovenous heat induced thrombosis in EVLA (3.6%) and RFA (2.2%). Cox proportional hazard was significant for compliance with compression therapy (hazard ratio [HR] 2.12, confidence interval [CI] 95% = 1.10–4.20, P = 0.031) and a lack of working with a wound clinic (HR 0.50, CI 95% = 0.33–0.75, P = 0.001) were associated with the decreased time to healing of ulcer but was not influenced by the presence of other comorbidities of smoking or diabetes mellitus.

      Conclusions

      This study indicates a trend toward cyanoacrylate ablation having longer healing times and more complications compared to other ablation methods when used in patients with active venous ulcers. Compliance with compression treatment is predictive of venous ulcer healing and working with a wound clinic had significantly longer healing times.
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