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Symptom Relief and Reintervention after Iliac Vein Stenting Stratified by CEAP Clinical Classification

      Background

      This study sought to evaluate long-term symptom relief and reintervention rates after iliac vein stenting (IVS) in patients with chronic venous outflow obstruction.

      Methods

      A single-institution database of patients undergoing IVS from August 2011 to June 2021 was analyzed. Patients were stratified into three cohorts based on the clinical component of the clinical, etiology, anatomical, and pathophysiology (CEAP) classification: C3, C4, and C5/6. Symptoms were quantified using the venous clinical severity score (VCSS). Reintervention was defined as any procedure using venography. Edema, pigmentation, and ulceration progression-free survival as well as reintervention-free survival were assessed with Kaplan Meier analysis.

      Results

      Among 737 total patients, there were 435 C3, 206 C4, and 96 C5/6 patients. The C5/6 cohort had the highest percentage of patients undergo reoperation (36.4%). C5/6 patients yielded the poorest ulceration progression-free survival (P < 0.001) while C3 patients had the poorest skin pigmentation progression-free survival (P = 0.009). On adjusted analysis there was no significant difference in odds of reintervention between study cohorts. Mean composite VCSS scores were significantly different at each yearly post-operative follow-up visit up to 6 years.

      Conclusions

      The present study is one of the largest investigations of long-term outcomes in IVS patients. Most patients with long-term follow-up experienced an improvement in their composite VCSS. CEAP clinical classification at the time of IVS had a significant influence on the likelihood and quantity of reintervention.
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