Advertisement

Clinical Predictors and Outcomes Associated with Postoperative Delirium Following Infrainguinal Bypass Surgery

Open AccessPublished:July 06, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2022.06.001

      Background

      Post-operative delirium (POD) is common yet often underdiagnosed following vascular surgery. Elderly patients with advanced peripheral artery disease may be at particular risk for POD yet understanding of the clinical predictors and impact of POD is incomplete. We sought to identify POD predictors and associated resource utilization after infrainguinal lower extremity bypass.

      Methods

      This single center retrospective analysis included all infrainguinal bypass cases performed for peripheral arterial disease from 2012–2020. The primary outcome was inpatient POD. Delirium sequelae were also evaluated. Key secondary outcomes were length of stay, nonhome discharge, readmission, 30-day amputation, post-operative myocardial infarction, mortality, and 2-year survival. Regression analysis was used to evaluate risk factors for delirium in addition to association with 2-year survival and amputation free survival.

      Results

      Among 420 subjects undergoing infrainguinal lower extremity bypass, 105 (25%) developed POD. Individuals with POD were older and more likely to have non-elective surgery (P < 0.05). On multivariable analysis, independent predictors of POD were age 60–89 years old, chronic limb threatening ischemia, female sex, and nonelective procedure. Consultations for POD took place for 25 cases (24%); 13 (52%) were with pharmacists, and only 4 (16%) resulted in recommendations. The average length of stay for those with POD was higher (17 days vs. 9 days; P < 0.001). POD was associated with increased non-home discharge (61.8% vs. 22.1%; P < 0.001), 30-day major amputation (6.7% vs. 1.6%; P < 0.01), 30-day postoperative myocardial infarction (11.4% vs. 4.1%; P < 0.01), and 90-day mortality (7.6% vs. 2.9%; P = 0.03). Survival at 2 years was lower in those with delirium (89% vs. 75%; P < 0.001). In a Cox proportional hazards model, delirium was independently associated with decreased survival (HR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.15–3.38; P = 0.014) and decreased major-amputation free survival (HR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.18–2.96; P = 0.007).

      Conclusions

      POD is common following infrainguinal lower extremity bypass and is associated with other adverse post-operative outcomes and increased resource utilization, including increased hospital length of stay, nonhome discharge, and worse 2-year survival. Future studies should evaluate the role of routine multidisciplinary care for high-risk patients to improve perioperative outcomes for vulnerable older adults undergoing infrainguinal lower extremity bypass.

      Introduction

      In the United States, the population of adults 65 years and older is projected to nearly double by 2060 and age is an independent risk factor for the development of peripheral arterial disease (PAD).
      • Vespa J.
      • Medina L.
      • Armstrong D.M.
      Demographic Turning Points for the United States: Population Projections for 2020 to 2060. Washington DC.
      ,
      • Dua A.
      • Lee C.J.
      Epidemiology of peripheral arterial disease and critical limb ischemia.
      Consequently, the number of patients requiring vascular surgery with its attendant physiologic demand is expected to grow. Patients requiring vascular surgery are some of the most complex and frail of any surgical population demonstrating the importance of better understanding the role of geriatric vulnerabilities in this population.
      • Ramirez J.L.
      • Gasper W.J.
      • Seib C.D.
      • et al.
      Patient complexity by surgical specialty does not correlate with work relative value units.
      ,
      • George E.L.
      • Hall D.E.
      • Youk A.
      • et al.
      Association between patient frailty and postoperative mortality across multiple noncardiac surgical specialties.
      One known complication following surgery in older adults with geriatric vulnerabilities is
      post-operative delirium (POD) and has a reported incidence ranging from 5–39% following vascular surgery.
      • Raats J.W.
      • Steunenberg S.L.
      • de Lange D.C.
      • et al.
      Risk factors of post-operative delirium after elective vascular surgery in the elderly: a systematic review.
      Delirium is defined as an acute, fluctuating disturbance in attention and awareness with associated cognitive dysfunction.
      American Psychiatric Association
      Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
      Despite standardized methods for delirium diagnosis, POD is commonly missed in up to 50% of hospitalized patients.
      • Milisen K.
      • Foreman M.D.
      • Wouters B.
      • et al.
      DOCUMENTATION of delirium in elderly patients with hip fracture.
      The fluctuating nature of delirium coupled with poor provider recognition and documentation, contribute to underdiagnosis.
      • Milisen K.
      • Foreman M.D.
      • Wouters B.
      • et al.
      DOCUMENTATION of delirium in elderly patients with hip fracture.
      Although, POD can affect all patients undergoing surgery, older adults are at elevated risk. A higher prevalence of comorbid conditions in older adults, including cognitive and sensory impairment, contributes to their elevated risk of POD.
      • Raats J.W.
      • Steunenberg S.L.
      • de Lange D.C.
      • et al.
      Risk factors of post-operative delirium after elective vascular surgery in the elderly: a systematic review.
      ,
      • Visser L.
      • Prent A.
      • Banning L.B.D.
      • et al.
      Risk factors for delirium after vascular surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
      Frailty, an age-related syndrome of decreased physiologic reserve, is associated with adverse post-operative outcomes, including POD.
      • Mahanna-Gabrielli E.
      • Zhang K.
      • Sieber F.E.
      • et al.
      Frailty is associated with postoperative delirium but not with postoperative cognitive decline in older noncardiac surgery patients.
      When uncontrolled, PAD can progress to chronic limb threatening ischemia (CLTI), which can be an indication for surgery. Major vascular surgery procedures such as lower extremity bypass (LEB) incur a high physiologic demand that can further exacerbate the risk of POD. This is particularly important because POD is known to be associated with increased rates of post-operative complications, nonhome discharge, and mortality across surgical specialties.
      • Parikh S.S.
      • Chung F.
      Postoperative delirium in the elderly.
      Whereas evidence has shown that patients undergoing major vascular surgery are at elevated risk for delirium,
      • Visser L.
      • Prent A.
      • Banning L.B.D.
      • et al.
      Risk factors for delirium after vascular surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
      its impact on perioperative outcomes and resource utilization after LEB is poorly described. We therefore sought to identify independent clinical predictors of POD and investigate its impact on resource utilization. We hypothesized that POD could be predicted and POD would be associated with increased healthcare resource utilization.

      Materials and Methods

      Cohort

      This was a single center retrospective analysis of unique cases treated at the University of California, San Francisco. Inclusion criteria were LEB for intermittent claudication or CLTI from 2012–2020. Cases were extracted from an electronic data warehouse with procedural, demographic, and outcome data audited by chart review. Preoperative diagnoses were identified using International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes. Frailty was defined using a previously described 11-item modified frailty index (mFI) score which was calculated by dividing the total number of included comorbidities by 11
      • Velanovich V.
      • Antoine H.
      • Swartz A.
      • et al.
      Accumulating deficits model of frailty and postoperative mortality and morbidity: its application to a national database.
      ; mFI scores ≥0.18 were considered frail. The optimal score cut-off was determined via Youden cutpoint estimation. The Committee on Human Research of the University of California, San Francisco approved this study (IRB 20–30112). Due to the observational nature of this study, participant consent was waived.

      POD Identification

      The primary outcome was POD, identified via a manual chart review method which has been validated against the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) with 74% sensitivity and 83% specificity.
      • Inouye S.K.
      • Leo-Summers L.
      • Zhang Y.
      • et al.
      A chart-based method for identification of delirium: validation compared with interviewer ratings using the confusion assessment method.
      This method entailed screening all post-operative progress, nursing, and consult notes for evidence of an acute change in mental status; evidence of key words such as delirium, inattention, disorientation, confusion, hallucinations, and agitation aided in identification. During the study period, covering ward nurses performed routine shift Nu-DESC delirium assessments. Delirium timing was recorded, and only post-operative inpatient events were considered POD.

      Outcomes

      POD sequelae were characterized by evaluating the use of sitters, physical restraints, and reports of the subject pulling on equipment (not mutually exclusive). The use of consultation for POD was evaluated and classified by consultant specialty, indication for consultation, and the resulting recommendation(s) if any. Secondary outcomes included length of inpatient hospital stay, nonhome discharge (discharge to nursing facility or rehabilitation center), readmission at 30 days, major amputation at 30 days, postoperative myocardial infarction at 30 days, postoperative venous thromboembolism, mortality at 30 and 90 days, and survival at 2 years.

      Statistical Methods

      Continuous variables are reported as mean ± standard deviation (SD) and percentage. Bivariate analysis was performed: Student's t-test was used for normally distributed continuous variables, χ2 analysis was used for counts, and Fisher's exact test for expected low cell counts as appropriate to the data. POD's association with 2-year survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariable Cox regression. A manual stepwise binary logistic regression identified independent predictors for POD. All variables with P < 0.1 on bivariate analysis were assessed for model inclusion; exit criterion was P > 0.05. All statistical analysis was performed on Stata (StataCorp. 2019. Stata Statistical Software: Release 16. College Station, TX: StataCorp LLC).

      Results

      Study Population Demographics

      During the study period, 420 subjects underwent LEB. The average age was 68.4 ± 12.6 and the majority of the population was male (63.6%). The majority of the cohort identified as White race (70.2%), 7.9% as Black race, 6.7% as Asian race and 10.2% as Hispanic/Latinx ethnicity. In addition, 48.2% of cases had diabetes mellitus, 17.1% had end stage renal disease, 89.8% were classified as frail, and 4% had a preoperative diagnosis of dementia (Table I).
      Table IStudy population demographics and post-operative delirium incidence
      CategoryTotal (%)
      Column percentage.
      Delirium (%)
      Row percentage.
      P-value
      Infrainguinal LEB
      Lower Extremity Bypass.
      420 (100)105 (25)
      Age68.4 (SD 12.6)74.3 (SD 10.0)<0.001
      Age Group<0.001
       <6091 (21.7)9 (9.9)
       60–69127 (30.2)27 (21.3)
       70–79126 (30.0)35 (27.8)
       80–8968 (16.2)31 (45.6)
       ≥908 (1.9)3 (37.5)
      Sex0.006
       Female153 (36.4)50 (32.7)
       Male267 (63.6)55 (20.6)
      Race
       White0.33
      Yes295 (70.2)70 (23.7)
      No125 (31.3)35 (28.0)
       Black0.464
      Yes33 (7.9)10 (30.3)
      No387 (92.1)95 (24.5)
       Asian0.024
      Yes28 (6.7)12 (42.9)
      No392 (93.3)93 (23.7)
       Other0.427
      Yes64 (15.2)13 (20.3)
      No356 (84.8)92 (25.8)
      Hispanic0.033
       Yes43 (10.2)5 (11.6)
       No377 (89.8)100 (26.5)
      Urgency0.001
       Elective235 (56.0)44 (18.7)
       Urgent/Emergent185 (44.0)61 (33.0)
      CLTI
      Chronic Limb Threatening Ischemia.
      <0.001
       Yes257 (61.2)79 (30.7)
       No163 (38.8)26 (16.0)
      Coronary Artery Disease0.183
       Yes161 (38.3)46 (28.6)
       No259 (61.7)59 (22.8)
      COPD0.94
       Yes71 (16.9)18 (25.4)
       No349 (83.1)87 (24.9)
      Diabetes Mellitus0.09
       Yes202 (48.1)58 (28.7)
       No218 (51.9)47 (21.6)
      End Stage Renal Disease0.07
       Yes72 (17.1)24 (33.3)
       No348 (82.9)81 (23.3)
      Smoking0.41
       Yes146 (34.8)33 (22.6)
       No274 (65.2)72 (26.2)
      Preoperative Statin0.885
       Yes342 (81.4)86 (25.2)
       No78 (18.6)19 (24.4)
      Preoperative Dementia0.007
       Yes17 (4.0)9 (53.0)
       No403 (96.0)96 (23.8)
      Frail0.033
       Yes377 (89.8)100 (26.5)
       No43 (10.2)5 (11.6)
      Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
      a Column percentage.
      b Row percentage.
      c Lower Extremity Bypass.
      d Chronic Limb Threatening Ischemia.

      Incidence and Predictors of POD

      Within the 420 LEB cases 105 (25%) developed POD. On average, subjects with POD were older compared to subjects without POD (74.3 ± 10.0 vs. 66.5 ± 12.8; P < 0.01). After stratifying the cohort by age decade, we found the highest incidence of POD in the 80–89-year-old group (35.4%) (Table I). On bivariate analysis, POD was associated with female sex (32.7% vs. 20.6%, P = 0.006), Asian race (42.9% vs. 23.7%; P = 0.024), non-elective (urgent or emergent) surgery (33.0% vs. 18.7%; P = 0.001), CLTI (30.7% vs. 16.0%; P < 0.001), frailty (26.5% vs. 11.6%; P = 0.033), and those with preoperative dementia (53.0% vs. 23.8%; P = 0.007). Among those with preoperative dementia, median age was 76.0 (IQR = 71.2–81.6). Hispanic ethnicity was associated with decreased rates of POD (11.6% vs. 26.5%; P = 0.033) (Table I); however, Hispanic patients were younger (mean age 60.6 vs. 69.4; P < 0.001). On multivariable binary logistic regression for POD, independent risk factors were nonelective procedure, female sex, age, and CLTI as the indication for surgery (c-statistic = 0.72) (Table II).
      Table IIBinary logistic regression model predicting delirium incidence
      VariableOdds ratio95% CIP-value
      Age (Reference <60 years)
       60–69 years old2.301.08–4.890.031
       70–79 years old2.881.38–6.010.005
       80–89 years old5.922.67–13.11<0.001
      Female Sex (reference Male sex)1.731.08–2.790.024
      Non-Elective Procedure2.151.33–3.470.002
      CLTI
      Chronic Limb Threatening Ischemia–reference group intermittent claudication.
      1.921.12–3.260.017
      C-Statistic = 0.72
      a Chronic Limb Threatening Ischemia–reference group intermittent claudication.

      Outcomes and Interventions Associated with POD

      Within the group who developed POD, 32% required a sitter, 16% physical restraints, 25% pulled out equipment, and 24% had a specialist consultation for delirium (Table III). Most consults (52%) were to pharmacy, of which only 4 (31%) resulted in a recommendation all only addressing medication changes. Consults to the pain medicine service (24%) and psychiatry (24%) always resulted in a recommendation for a medication change. Furthermore, psychiatry recommended environmental interventions in 67% of their consults in contrast to pharmacy and the pain medicine service that did not comment on environment in any of their consultations (Table IV).
      Table IIICharacterization of delirium sequelae
      Delirium sequelaeNumber of patients with delirium (%)
      Sitter34 (32)
      Restraints17 (16)
      Pulled Out Equipment26 (25)
      Consults for Delirium25 (24)
      Table IVDelirium consultants and recommendation characterization
      ServiceTotal (%)Recommendation (%)Medication change (%)Environment change (%)
      Pharmacy13 (52)4 (30.8)4 (100)0
      Pain Medicine6 (24)6 (100)6 (100)0
      Psychiatry6 (24)6 (100)6 (100)4 (66.7)
      On bivariate analysis, POD was associated with longer inpatient length of stay (17 days vs. 9 days; P < 0.01), non-home discharge (62% vs. 22%; P < 0.01), increased rate of major amputation at 30 days (6.7% vs. 1.6%; P = 0.007), post-operative myocardial infarction at 30 days (6.7% vs. 1.6%; P = 0.007) and mortality at 90 days (7.6% vs. 2.9%; P = 0.03) (Table V). On Kaplan-Meier analysis, POD was associated with decreased 2-year survival (75% vs. 89%; P < 0.001) (Fig. 1). Additionally, POD was associated with decreased major amputation free survival at 2 years (64.8% vs. 83.2%; P < 0.001) (Fig. 2). On multivariable Cox regression for 2-year survival, delirium was independently associated with worse survival (Hazards Ratio = 2.0; 95% confidence interval:1.15–3.38; P = 0.014) after adjusting for operative indication, elective status, race, age, and preoperative MI diagnosis. Furthermore, delirium was independently associated with worse major amputation free survival (Hazards Ratio = 1.9; 95% CI:1.18–2.96; P = 0.007) after adjusting for age, race, sex, ethnicity, elective status, operative indication, frailty, preoperative coronary artery disease, preoperative dementia, and preoperative end-stage renal disease diagnosis.
      Table VPost-operative outcomes by delirium status
      OutcomeTotal (%)Delirium (%)No delirium (%)P-value
      Length of Stay10.8 (SD 12.6)16.7 (SD 20.6)8.8 (SD 7.5)<0.001
      Non-Home Discharge131 (32.0)63 (61.8)68 (22.1)<0.001
      Readmission 30 days86 (20.5)25 (29.1)61 (70.9)0.955
      Major Amputation 30 days12 (2.9)7 (6.7)5 (1.6)0.013
      Post-operative MI
      Myocardial Infarction.
      30 days
      25 (6.0)12 (11.4)13 (4.1)0.006
      Mortality 30 days5 (1.2)3 (60)2 (40)0.07
      Mortality 90 days17 (4.1)8 (7.6)9 (2.9)0.033
      Venous Thromboembolism6 (1.4)3 (2.9)3 (1.0)0.351
      a Myocardial Infarction.
      Figure thumbnail gr1
      Fig. 1Survival Analysis by Delirium Status. Kaplan Meier analysis demonstrated a significant difference in survival (79% vs. 89%; P < 0.001) at 2 years between those with delirium and those without delirium.
      Figure thumbnail gr2
      Fig. 2Major Amputation Free Survival by Delirium Status. Kaplan Meier analysis demonstrated a significant difference in amputation free survival (64.8% vs. 83.2%; P < 0.001) at 2 years between those with delirium and those without delirium.

      Discussion

      In this retrospective study at a single tertiary care center, POD after infrainguinal LEB was identified in a quarter of cases and was associated with increased resource utilization and worse 2-year survival. After adjusting for demographic variables and medical, POD was independently associated with twice the hazards for death over 2-years. This study highlights the importance of identifying and addressing delirium after LEB given the significant associations with worse outcomes and underscores the need to identify patients at increased risk and develop better prevention and treatment strategies.
      Our study's estimate of POD incidence falls within the range of 24–43% reported in subjects 65 and older undergoing LEB for CLTI.
      • van Eijsden W.
      • Raats J.
      • Mulder P.
      • et al.
      New aspects of delirium in elderly patients with critical limb ischemia.
      • Sasajima Y.
      • Sasajima T.
      • Azuma N.
      • et al.
      Factors related to postoperative delirium in patients with lower limb ischaemia: a prospective cohort study.
      • Raats J.W.
      • van Hoof-de Lepper C.C.H.A.
      • MTh Feitsma
      • et al.
      Current factors of fragility and delirium in vascular surgery.
      In our study, delirium was most common in older subjects and age was an independent predictor of delirium. With increasing age, physiologic reserve decreases along with structural changes to the brain like cerebral atrophy predisposing older adults to delirium.
      • Gunther M.L.
      • Morandi A.
      • Krauskopf E.
      • et al.
      The association between brain volumes, delirium duration, and cognitive outcomes in intensive care unit survivors.
      ,
      • Cunningham C.
      • MacLullich A.M.J.
      At the extreme end of the psychoneuroimmunological spectrum: delirium as a maladaptive sickness behaviour response.
      Furthermore, endothelial dysfunction, a fundamental pathophysiologic mechanism behind atherosclerosis and PAD also predisposes individuals to delirium.
      • Hughes C.G.
      • Patel M.B.
      • Pandharipande P.P.
      Pathophysiology of acute brain dysfunction.
      ,
      • Brevetti G.
      • Silvestro A.
      • Schiano V.
      • et al.
      Endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk prediction in peripheral arterial disease.
      Given the high risk for POD, older patients with atherosclerotic disease and PAD may benefit from preoperative screening for delirium risk.
      Our finding that other delirium predictors in our study included non-elective surgery, CLTI, and female sex aligns with results from previous studies. In a recent systematic review, emergency surgery was an independent intraoperative risk factor for development of POD in patients undergoing vascular surgery.
      • Visser L.
      • Prent A.
      • Banning L.B.D.
      • et al.
      Risk factors for delirium after vascular surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
      Nonelective cases may be associated with pain, inflammation and/or infection which have been found to increase the risk of inpatient delirium.
      • Pol R.A.
      • van Leeuwen B.L.
      • Izaks G.J.
      • et al.
      C-Reactive protein predicts postoperative delirium following vascular surgery.
      ,
      • Ding X.
      • Gao X.
      • Chen Q.
      • et al.
      Preoperative acute pain is associated with postoperative delirium.
      CLTI, previously reported as an independent risk factor for POD,
      • Raats J.W.
      • Steunenberg S.L.
      • de Lange D.C.
      • et al.
      Risk factors of post-operative delirium after elective vascular surgery in the elderly: a systematic review.
      ,
      • Sasajima Y.
      • Sasajima T.
      • Azuma N.
      • et al.
      Factors related to postoperative delirium in patients with lower limb ischaemia: a prospective cohort study.
      is associated with systemic atherosclerotic disease, which contributes to accelerated cognitive decline.
      • Vinkers D.J.
      • Stek M.L.
      • van der Mast R.C.
      • et al.
      Generalized atherosclerosis, cognitive decline, and depressive symptoms in old age.
      ,
      • Beckman J.A.
      • Creager M.A.
      Critical limb ischemia and intermediate-term survival.
      Cognitive impairment is a known risk factor for POD.
      • Raats J.W.
      • Steunenberg S.L.
      • de Lange D.C.
      • et al.
      Risk factors of post-operative delirium after elective vascular surgery in the elderly: a systematic review.
      ,
      • Ansaloni L.
      • Catena F.
      • Chattat R.
      • et al.
      Risk factors and incidence of postoperative delirium in elderly patients after elective and emergency surgery.
      ,
      • Robinson T.N.
      • Raeburn C.D.
      • Tran Z.v.
      • et al.
      Postoperative delirium in the elderly.
      However, in our study, preoperative cognitive impairment did not remain statistically significant on multivariable analysis, although this may be secondary to a type II error. Cognitive impairment is frequently unrecognized and poorly coded potentially contributing to the low frequency in our study population.
      • Callahan C.M.
      Documentation and evaluation of cognitive impairment in elderly primary care patients.
      CLTI contributes to functional impairment, predisposing patients to POD.
      • Robinson T.N.
      • Raeburn C.D.
      • Tran Z.v.
      • et al.
      Postoperative delirium in the elderly.
      In our 80–89-year-old subjects who had CLTI or nonelective surgery, POD incidence was 51% and 54% respectively, suggesting an increased need for preventative measures in these groups. An unexpected finding was that female sex was independently associated with increased odds of delirium on multivariable analysis. A prior study found that male sex was a risk factor for hyperactive delirium following hip replacement.
      • Ahn E.J.
      • Bang S.R.
      Risk factors associated with treatment of hyperactive postoperative delirium in elderly patients following hip fracture surgery under regional anesthesia: a nationwide population-based study.
      Our finding may be a result of differences in patient demographics between LEB and hip fracture patients, differences in screening practices, and inclusion of hypoactive delirium in our study, which is more common in female patients.
      • Wang H.
      • Guo X.
      • Zhu X.
      • et al.
      Gender differences and postoperative delirium in adult patients undergoing cardiac valve surgery.
      Using the 11-item mFI score, frailty was not an independent predictor of POD. On bivariate analysis, frailty was associated with POD; after accounting for age, this association did not persist. Cognitive impairment, a component of frailty and known predictor of POD, shares a high collinearity with age, which may account for the association between frailty and POD on bivariate analysis. It remains unclear if it is the components of frailty or the overall phenotype of frailty that predicts POD. Additionally, our study lacked a direct measurement of patient function. Other frailty scores that directly measure patient function or are designed for individual assessment have been shown to be associated with POD.
      • van Eijsden W.
      • Raats J.
      • Mulder P.
      • et al.
      New aspects of delirium in elderly patients with critical limb ischemia.
      ,
      • Liu C.Y.
      • Gong N.
      • Liu W.
      The association between preoperative frailty and postoperative delirium: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
      Consultation for delirium was requested in 24% of POD cases. Pharmacists were consulted the most often, but less than a third recommended any medication changes. Pain medicine and psychiatric providers recommended changes to pain management or discontinuation of deliriogenic medications in all their consults. Additionally, psychiatrist consultants provided nonpharmacologic environmental interventions such as removal of tethers to encourage mobilization, exposure to daylight to promote sleep-wake cycle, frequent reorientation, and stimulation with TV/activities. At our institution, inpatient geriatric consultation was available only after 2018, but even when they were available, no geriatric consultations were performed. Interestingly, proactive geriatrics consultation reduced delirium incidence by one-third and severe delirium by one-half in hip fracture patients 65 years and older.
      • Marcantonio E.R.
      • Flacker J.M.
      • Wright R.J.
      • et al.
      Reducing delirium after hip fracture: a randomized trial.
      These consultations included assessment and recommendations regarding oxygen, fluid electrolyte balance, pain control, elimination of unnecessary medications, bowel and bladder function, nutritional intake, early mobilization, post-operative complications, environmental stimuli, and treatment of agitation.
      • Marcantonio E.R.
      • Flacker J.M.
      • Wright R.J.
      • et al.
      Reducing delirium after hip fracture: a randomized trial.
      With a focus on multicomponent interventions such as frequent reorientation, mobilization, sensory aids, promotion of sleep, improved nutrition status, and reducing polypharmacy, geriatric consultations may provide essential guidance to reduce the incidence and detrimental effects of delirium.
      • Marcantonio E.R.
      • Flacker J.M.
      • Wright R.J.
      • et al.
      Reducing delirium after hip fracture: a randomized trial.
      The specific benefit of geriatric consultation should therefore be studied in vascular surgery patients.
      Our study found that POD is associated with increased resource utilization and adverse post-operative outcomes following LEB. This is consistent with previous studies in aortic surgery and lower extremity major amputation that demonstrated an increased length of stay in patients with POD.
      • Benoit A.G.
      • Campbell B.I.
      • Tanner J.R.
      • et al.
      Risk factors and prevalence of perioperative cognitive dysfunction in abdominal aneurysm patients.
      • Rosen S.F.
      • Clagett G.P.
      • Valentine R.J.
      • et al.
      Transient advanced mental impairment: an underappreciated morbidity after aortic surgery.
      • Shin Y.H.
      • Yoon J.S.
      • Jeon H.J.
      • et al.
      Postoperative delirium in elderly patients with critical limb ischemia undergoing major leg amputation: a retrospective study.
      A study of delirium after vascular surgery, including peripheral bypass, found that POD was associated with nonhome discharge and mortality, which concurs with our findings.
      • Visser L.
      • Prent A.
      • van der Laan M.J.
      • et al.
      Predicting postoperative delirium after vascular surgical procedures.
      In addition, a study of open and endovascular procedures for lower extremity PAD found that POD was associated with worse 2-year amputation free survival.
      • Aitken S.J.
      • Randall D.A.
      • Noguchi N.
      • et al.
      Multiple peri-operative complications are associated with reduced long term amputation free survival following revascularisation for lower limb peripheral artery disease: a population based linked data study.
      In the ICU, delirium has been associated with a significant increase in costs, even after controlling for length of stay and illness severity.
      • Vasilevskis E.E.
      • Chandrasekhar R.
      • Holtze C.H.
      • et al.
      The cost of ICU delirium and coma in the intensive care unit patient.
      To help relieve the burden that POD places on resource utilization, patients undergoing LEB may benefit from increased preoperative risk screening. Risk factors identified in our study can help to identify high risk populations who could benefit from comprehensive geriatric assessment which has been shown to reduce the risk of POD.
      • Partridge J.S.L.
      • Harari D.
      • Martin F.C.
      • et al.
      Randomized clinical trial of comprehensive geriatric assessment and optimization in vascular surgery.
      Our study should be considered in the context of its limitations. This analysis is from a single tertiary care center and therefore the study population may not be representative of the general population in the United States. In addition, this was a retrospective analysis, so we cannot infer causality regarding delirium's relationship with post-operative outcomes. Moreover, there was limited data on other comorbidities such as functional status and current smoking status that may also contribute to delirium incidence. This data could be important since previous studies have shown functional status, substance abuse, and current smoking status to be independent predictors of POD.
      • Visser L.
      • Prent A.
      • van der Laan M.J.
      • et al.
      Predicting postoperative delirium after vascular surgical procedures.
      ,
      • Pinho C.
      • Cruz S.
      • Santos A.
      • et al.
      Postoperative delirium: age and low functional reserve as independent risk factors.
      There was also limited data on post-operative analgesia and infectious complications that may also contribute to delirium incidence and worse outcomes. A focus for future study is the effect of a delirium care bundle, which incorporates specific interventions aimed at reducing delirium incidence such as limiting the use of opioid medications. Finally, delirium was identified by manual chart review using a validated method but may inaccurately identify delirium.
      • Inouye S.K.
      • Leo-Summers L.
      • Zhang Y.
      • et al.
      A chart-based method for identification of delirium: validation compared with interviewer ratings using the confusion assessment method.
      Despite these limitations, this study identifies delirium predictors and describes the impact that POD may have on postoperative outcomes; this work can inspire the design of interventions to minimize adverse outcomes in vulnerable patients.

      Conclusion

      POD is a serious, yet common and often unrecognized complication associated with downstream hospital resource utilization. In this single center retrospective study, POD following LEB was found following 25% of cases and was associated with increased resource utilization and worse 2-year survival. Our findings indicate that individuals undergoing LEB are particularly vulnerable to POD, and that more research is warranted on how to prevent and mitigate delirium, including whether pre-operative geriatric assessment and peri-operative delirium prevention strategies can decrease the risk of POD after LEB.
      Pamela Derish, M.A. – for scientific editing of the manuscript.

      References

        • Vespa J.
        • Medina L.
        • Armstrong D.M.
        Demographic Turning Points for the United States: Population Projections for 2020 to 2060. Washington DC.
        2020 (Available from:)
        • Dua A.
        • Lee C.J.
        Epidemiology of peripheral arterial disease and critical limb ischemia.
        Tech Vasc Interv Radiol. 2016; 19: 91-95
        • Ramirez J.L.
        • Gasper W.J.
        • Seib C.D.
        • et al.
        Patient complexity by surgical specialty does not correlate with work relative value units.
        Surgery. 2020; 168: 371-378
        • George E.L.
        • Hall D.E.
        • Youk A.
        • et al.
        Association between patient frailty and postoperative mortality across multiple noncardiac surgical specialties.
        JAMA Surg. 2020; 18: e205152
        • Raats J.W.
        • Steunenberg S.L.
        • de Lange D.C.
        • et al.
        Risk factors of post-operative delirium after elective vascular surgery in the elderly: a systematic review.
        Int J Surg. 2016; 35: 1-6
        • American Psychiatric Association
        Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
        American Psychiatric Association, Arlington, VA2013
        • Milisen K.
        • Foreman M.D.
        • Wouters B.
        • et al.
        DOCUMENTATION of delirium in elderly patients with hip fracture.
        J Gerontol Nurs. 2002; 28: 23-29
        • Visser L.
        • Prent A.
        • Banning L.B.D.
        • et al.
        Risk factors for delirium after vascular surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Ann Vasc Surg. 2021; 76: 500-513
        • Mahanna-Gabrielli E.
        • Zhang K.
        • Sieber F.E.
        • et al.
        Frailty is associated with postoperative delirium but not with postoperative cognitive decline in older noncardiac surgery patients.
        Anesth Analg. 2020; 130: 1516-1523
        • Parikh S.S.
        • Chung F.
        Postoperative delirium in the elderly.
        Anesth Analg. 1995; 80: 1223-1232
        • Velanovich V.
        • Antoine H.
        • Swartz A.
        • et al.
        Accumulating deficits model of frailty and postoperative mortality and morbidity: its application to a national database.
        J Surg Res. 2013; 183: 104-110
        • Inouye S.K.
        • Leo-Summers L.
        • Zhang Y.
        • et al.
        A chart-based method for identification of delirium: validation compared with interviewer ratings using the confusion assessment method.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005; 53: 312-318
        • van Eijsden W.
        • Raats J.
        • Mulder P.
        • et al.
        New aspects of delirium in elderly patients with critical limb ischemia.
        Clin Interv Aging. 2015; 10: 1537-1546
        • Sasajima Y.
        • Sasajima T.
        • Azuma N.
        • et al.
        Factors related to postoperative delirium in patients with lower limb ischaemia: a prospective cohort study.
        Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2012; 44: 411-415
        • Raats J.W.
        • van Hoof-de Lepper C.C.H.A.
        • MTh Feitsma
        • et al.
        Current factors of fragility and delirium in vascular surgery.
        Ann Vasc Surg. 2015; 29: 968-976
        • Gunther M.L.
        • Morandi A.
        • Krauskopf E.
        • et al.
        The association between brain volumes, delirium duration, and cognitive outcomes in intensive care unit survivors.
        Crit Care Med. 2012; 40: 2022-2032
        • Cunningham C.
        • MacLullich A.M.J.
        At the extreme end of the psychoneuroimmunological spectrum: delirium as a maladaptive sickness behaviour response.
        Brain Behav Immun. 2013; 28: 1-13
        • Hughes C.G.
        • Patel M.B.
        • Pandharipande P.P.
        Pathophysiology of acute brain dysfunction.
        Curr Opin Crit Care. 2012; 18: 518-526
        • Brevetti G.
        • Silvestro A.
        • Schiano V.
        • et al.
        Endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk prediction in peripheral arterial disease.
        Circulation. 2003; 108: 2093-2098
        • Pol R.A.
        • van Leeuwen B.L.
        • Izaks G.J.
        • et al.
        C-Reactive protein predicts postoperative delirium following vascular surgery.
        Ann Vasc Surg. 2014; 28: 1923-1930
        • Ding X.
        • Gao X.
        • Chen Q.
        • et al.
        Preoperative acute pain is associated with postoperative delirium.
        Pain Med. 2021; 22: 15-21
        • Vinkers D.J.
        • Stek M.L.
        • van der Mast R.C.
        • et al.
        Generalized atherosclerosis, cognitive decline, and depressive symptoms in old age.
        Neurology. 2005; 65: 107-112
        • Beckman J.A.
        • Creager M.A.
        Critical limb ischemia and intermediate-term survival.
        JACC: Cardiovasc Interventions. 2014; 7: 1450-1452
        • Ansaloni L.
        • Catena F.
        • Chattat R.
        • et al.
        Risk factors and incidence of postoperative delirium in elderly patients after elective and emergency surgery.
        Br J Surg. 2010; 97: 273-280
        • Robinson T.N.
        • Raeburn C.D.
        • Tran Z.v.
        • et al.
        Postoperative delirium in the elderly.
        Ann Surg. 2009; 249: 173-178
        • Callahan C.M.
        Documentation and evaluation of cognitive impairment in elderly primary care patients.
        Ann Intern Med. 1995; 122: 422-429
        • Ahn E.J.
        • Bang S.R.
        Risk factors associated with treatment of hyperactive postoperative delirium in elderly patients following hip fracture surgery under regional anesthesia: a nationwide population-based study.
        Braz J Anesthesiol. 2022; 72: 213-219
        • Wang H.
        • Guo X.
        • Zhu X.
        • et al.
        Gender differences and postoperative delirium in adult patients undergoing cardiac valve surgery.
        Front Cardiovasc Med. 2021; 8: 751421
        • Liu C.Y.
        • Gong N.
        • Liu W.
        The association between preoperative frailty and postoperative delirium: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        J PeriAnesthesia Nurs. 2022; 37: 53-62.e1
        • Marcantonio E.R.
        • Flacker J.M.
        • Wright R.J.
        • et al.
        Reducing delirium after hip fracture: a randomized trial.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001; 49: 516-522
        • Benoit A.G.
        • Campbell B.I.
        • Tanner J.R.
        • et al.
        Risk factors and prevalence of perioperative cognitive dysfunction in abdominal aneurysm patients.
        J Vasc Surg. 2005; 42: 884-890
        • Rosen S.F.
        • Clagett G.P.
        • Valentine R.J.
        • et al.
        Transient advanced mental impairment: an underappreciated morbidity after aortic surgery.
        J Vasc Surg. 2002; 35: 376-381
        • Shin Y.H.
        • Yoon J.S.
        • Jeon H.J.
        • et al.
        Postoperative delirium in elderly patients with critical limb ischemia undergoing major leg amputation: a retrospective study.
        Korean J Anesthesiology. 2018; 71: 311-316
        • Visser L.
        • Prent A.
        • van der Laan M.J.
        • et al.
        Predicting postoperative delirium after vascular surgical procedures.
        J Vasc Surg. 2015; 62: 183-189
        • Aitken S.J.
        • Randall D.A.
        • Noguchi N.
        • et al.
        Multiple peri-operative complications are associated with reduced long term amputation free survival following revascularisation for lower limb peripheral artery disease: a population based linked data study.
        Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2020; 59: 437-445
        • Vasilevskis E.E.
        • Chandrasekhar R.
        • Holtze C.H.
        • et al.
        The cost of ICU delirium and coma in the intensive care unit patient.
        Med Care. 2018; 56: 890-897
        • Partridge J.S.L.
        • Harari D.
        • Martin F.C.
        • et al.
        Randomized clinical trial of comprehensive geriatric assessment and optimization in vascular surgery.
        Br J Surg. 2017; 104: 679-687
        • Pinho C.
        • Cruz S.
        • Santos A.
        • et al.
        Postoperative delirium: age and low functional reserve as independent risk factors.
        J Clin Anesth. 2016; 33: 507-513