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Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Shrinkage up to 2 Years Following Endovascular Repair with PEmbolization for Preventing Type 2 Endoleak: A Retrospective Single Center Study

      Background

      The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of preemptive embolization of aneurysm side branches that cause type 2 endoleak (T2EL).

      Methods

      We performed a retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in our facility between April 2009 and April 2019. All the patients underwent the preemptive embolization for preventing T2EL since April 2014. The patients were divided into the nonembolization group (between April 2009 and May 2014) or the embolization group (between April 2014 and April 2019). We used a support wire to improve a success rate of the preemptive embolization. The aneurysm sac shrinkage (≧5 mm), freedom from all-cause death and aneurysm-related death, T2EL-related reinterventions, aneurysm sac enlargement (≧5 mm), and complications related to the endovascular procedure were compared between the 2 groups.

      Results

      Two-hundred patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm were included. They were divided into the nonembolization group (N = 103) and the embolization group (N = 97). We successfully embolized 89% of all the patent aneurysm side branches in the embolization group. The characteristics of the 2 groups were similar except for hypertension, patent lumbar arteries, and the use of Zenith, Excluder, and Endurant. The preemptive embolization group showed better aneurysm sac shrinkage (73% vs. 42%; P < 0.0001), no aneurysm sac enlargement (0% vs. 5%; P < 0.05), and lower T2EL-related reintervention rate (hazard ratio, 0.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.0061–0.60; P < 0.01) up to 2 years after EVAR. There were no significant differences in freedom from all-cause death, aneurysm-related death, and complications between the 2 groups.

      Conclusions

      The present study showed the high success rate of preemptive embolization of aneurysm side branches resulting in better anatomical changes in the aneurysm sac and lower T2EL-related intervention rate in the embolization group up to 2 years after EVAR.
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