Advertisement

Dietary Effects on Chronic Venous Disease

      Background

      Diet is fundamental to maintaining and improving human health. There is ample evidence identifying the beneficial and/or harmful effects of diet on noncommunicable diseases such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. However, the associations of the diet to chronic venous disease has not been fully described.

      Methods

      Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey conducted on 1,571 community-dwelling adults in 2018. Diet intake frequency was assessed using valid food group consumption frequency questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of diet with chronic venous disease.

      Results

      In total, 857 participants were diagnosed with chronic venous disease. Those who ate soybean products daily and 4–6 days/week had a 51–31% lower risk of chronic venous disease compared with those who only occasionally consumed soybean food, respectively. Participants who consumed eggs and egg products 1–3 days/week versus those who only occasionally ate eggs showed a lower risk of chronic venous disease [odds ratio (OR) 0.542, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.375–0.782]. Eating fried food 4–6 days each week was associated with an increased risk of chronic venous disease (OR 3.872, 95% CI 1.263–11.599) compared with those who only occasionally ate fried foods. There is a decreasing tendency of the adjusted OR for eating soybean products daily with the severity of disease [chronic venous disease (C0–C2): OR 0.575, 95% CI 0.408–0.812; chronic venous insufficiency (C3–C6): OR 0.222, 95% CI 0.114–0.435].

      Conclusions

      A higher frequency in the consumption of soybean products and eggs were associated with a lower risk of chronic venous disease. High level of fried food consumption was positively associated with risk of chronic venous disease. There are certain specific trends in relation to dietary consumption and severity of disease, although these trends were less strong. These associations are largely independent of other dietary and nondietary factors.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Annals of Vascular Surgery
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Perrin M.
        • Eklof B.
        • VANR A.
        • et al.
        Venous symptoms: the sym vein consensus statement developed under the auspices of the European venous forum.
        Int Angiol. 2016; 35: 374-398
        • Nicolaides A.
        • Kakkos S.
        • Baekgaard N.
        • et al.
        Management of chronic venous disorders of the lower limbs. Guidelines according to scientific evidence. Part I.
        Int Angiol. 2018; 37: 181-254
        • Vuylsteke M.E.
        • Colman R.
        • Thomis S.
        • et al.
        An epidemiological survey of venous disease among general practitioner attendees in different geographical regions on the globe: the final results of the vein Consult Program.
        Angiology. 2018; 69: 779-785
        • Beebe-Dimmer J.L.
        • Pfeifer J.R.
        • Engle J.S.
        • et al.
        The epidemiology of chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins.
        Ann Epidemiol. 2005; 15: 175-184
        • Robertson L.
        • Evans C.
        • Fowkes F.G.
        Epidemiology of chronic venous disease.
        Phlebology. 2008; 23: 103-111
        • Wittens C.
        • Davies A.
        • Bækgaard N.
        • et al.
        Editor's choice - management of chronic venous disease: clinical practice guidelines of the European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS).
        Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2015; 49: 678-737
        • Kimokoti R.W.
        • Millen B.E.
        Nutrition for the prevention of chronic diseases.
        Med Clin North Am. 2016; 100: 1185-1198
        • Tilman D.
        • Clark M.
        Global diets link Environmental sustainability and human health.
        Nature. 2014; 515: 518-522
        • Cleave T.L.
        Varicose veins, nature's error or man's? Some implications of the darwinian theory.
        Lancet. 1959; 2: 172-175
        • Lee A.J.
        • Evans C.J.
        • Hau C.M.
        • et al.
        Fiber intake, constipation, and risk of varicose veins in the general population: Edinburgh vein study.
        J Clin Epidemiol. 2001; 54: 423-429
        • Ahti T.M.
        • Mäkivaara L.A.
        • Luukkaala T.
        • et al.
        Lifestyle factors and varicose veins: does cross-sectional design result in underestimate of the risk?.
        Phlebology. 2010; 25: 201-206
        • Chen Z.
        • Lee L.
        • Chen J.
        • et al.
        Cohort profile: the Kadoorie study of chronic disease in China (KSCDC).
        Int J Epidemiol. 2005; 34: 1243-1249
        • Eklöf B.
        • Rutherford R.B.
        • Bergan J.J.
        • et al.
        Revision of the ceap classification for chronic venous disorders: consensus statement.
        J Vasc Surg. 2004; 40: 1248-1252
        • Rabe E.
        • Pannier F.
        Clinical, aetiological, anatomical and pathological classification (ceap): gold standard and limits.
        Phlebology. 2012; 27: 114-118
        • Cleave T.L.
        Varicose veins, cotton workers, and diet.
        Br Med J. 1969; 3: 55-56
        • Malhotra S.L.
        An epidemiological study of varicose veins in Indian railroad workers from the south and north of India, with special reference to the causation and prevention of varicose veins.
        Int J Epidemiol. 1972; 1: 177-183
        • Melet J.J.
        [Western diet: risk factors for varices and explanation of their different frequencies among French people and immigrants].
        Phlebologie. 1981; 34: 235-243
        • Beavers K.M.
        • Jonnalagadda S.S.
        • Messina M.J.
        Soy consumption, adhesion molecules, and pro-inflammatory cytokines: a brief review of the literature.
        Nutr Rev. 2009; 67: 213-221
        • Kang J.
        • Badger T.M.
        • Ronis M.J.
        • et al.
        Non-isoflavone phytochemicals in soy and their health effects.
        J Agric Food Chem. 2010; 58: 8119-8133
        • Bouchenak M.
        • Lamri-Senhadji M.
        Nutritional quality of legumes, and their role in cardiometabolic risk prevention: a review.
        J Med Food. 2013; 16: 185-198
        • Liu X.
        • Shao Y.
        • Sun J.
        • et al.
        Egg consumption improves vascular and gut microbiota function without increasing inflammatory, metabolic, and oxidative stress markers.
        Food Sci Nutr. 2022; 10: 295-304
        • Gadiraju T.V.
        • Patel Y.
        • Gaziano J.M.
        • et al.
        Fried food consumption and cardiovascular health: a review of current evidence.
        Nutrients. 2015; 7: 8424-8430