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Major Adverse Limb Events Among Patients with Premature Peripheral Artery Disease Compared with Those at the Common Age Undergoing Revascularization in the Vascular Quality Initiative

Published:August 01, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2022.07.007

      Background

      Premature peripheral artery disease (PAD), defined as ≤ 50 years of age, is associated with poor outcomes following lower extremity revascularization (LER). However, the specific characteristics and outcomes of this group of patients compared to those at the common age undergoing revascularization have not been examined. The aim of this study is to compare patients with early versus late onset premature PAD undergoing LER focusing on major adverse limb events (MALEs).

      Methods

      All LER procedures (open and endovascular) in the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) were reviewed. A histogram of patient age at the time of initial LER (no prior LER) was used to define the common age, which included all patients within one standard deviation of the mean. Characteristics and outcomes of patients with premature PAD were compared to patients treated at the common age of presentation undergoing LER.

      Results

      A histogram of all patients undergoing LER was used to define 60 to 80 years as the common age. Patients with premature PAD were more likely to be female, African American, and Hispanic compared to patients at the common age. Patients with premature PAD were also more likely to have insulin-dependent diabetes, be current smokers, on dialysis, and be treated for claudication. Patients with premature PAD were less likely to have Transatlantic Intersociety Consensus (TASC II) C or D disease and were less likely to be on antiplatelets and statins. These differences were more pronounced in patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI). Cox proportional hazards regression demonstrated that premature PAD was independently associated with major adverse limb events (MALEs) at 1-year for patients with claudication (HR:1.7, 95% CI:1.4–2.0) and CLTI (HR:1.3, 95% CI:1.2–1.5) compared to patients 60 to 80 years of age.

      Conclusions

      Patients with premature PAD have significant differences in characteristics compared to patients treated at the common age. Vascular providers should emphasize medical therapy prior to LER given the lower rates of medical optimization and worse 1-year MALEs in patients with premature PAD.
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