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Renal Artery Stenosis Due to Entrapment ()

Published:September 01, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2022.07.012

      Abstract

      Background

      Common etiologies of renovascular occlusive disease include atherosclerosis disease, developmental fibrotic conditions such as fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD), vasculitis. Extrinsic compression of the renal artery is a rarely reported phenomenon but can lead to similar clinical manifestations.

      Methods

      We report recent experience with two patients who presented with extrinsic renal artery compression due to entrapment. Diagnosis was made with a constellation of findings on computed tomography angiography, dynamic duplex sonography, and catheter angiography. Both patients had hypertension and one had downstream subsegmental renal infarcts. The patients, both with right sided renal artery entrapment, were treated with open surgical decompression. Exposure was achieved via extended Kocher maneuver followed by mobilization of the right kidney and, in one patient, detachment of the right lobe of liver to allow circumferential exposure of the proximal right renal artery to the aorta. All entrapping tissue was circumferentially released.

      Results

      Both operations were uncomplicated. Intraoperative sonography was used to confirm luminal patency of the released segments. Follow-up renal artery duplex in both patients demonstrated resolution of dynamic compression. Renal artery peak systolic velocity and accelerations indices were all within normal limits. In both patients, improvement in blood pressure control was noted and discontinuation of anticoagulation was possible in the patient who had recurrent episodes of renal infarct.

      Conclusion

      Extrinsic compression of renal artery by diaphragmatic crura is rare but should be considered in younger patients or otherwise any patients with no vascular risk factors when renovascular hypertension workup yields no demonstrable intrinsic disease. A high index of suspicion should be raised when an anomalously high origin of the renal artery or proximity to the diaphragmatic crura are seen on cross sectional imaging. Work-up should include dynamic imaging to assess compression of renal arteries during expiration. Open surgical or laparoscopic decompression of the involved renal arteries can be curative.
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