Health Disparities in Non-Traumatic Lower Extremity Amputations. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Published:September 19, 2022DOI:


      • Socioeconomic status is associated with non-traumatic lower extremity amputation
      • Non-Caucasian ethnicity is associated with non-traumatic lower extremity amputation
      • Male Gender is associated with non-traumatic lower extremity amputation

      Structured Abstract


      Chronic diseases and their associated health outcomes have been known to disproportionately affect low socioeconomic persons around the world. The authors aim to examine the association between socioeconomic status and non-traumatic lower extremity amputation.


      A search of current literature was performed in March 2022 across Pubmed, Scopus, Embase, and Medline for relevant literature. Keywords included “socioeconomics”, “income”, “amputation”, and “lower extremities”.


      A total of 1,164,630 patients across 5 studies were incorporated into the meta-analysis of non-traumatic lower extremity amputation and socioeconomic status. An additional three citations were used in the secondary analyses between gender and ethnicity and their relationship with amputation. An association was observed, between low socioeconomic status and non-traumatic lower extremity amputations, O.R = 1.168; [CI: 1.153, 1.183] p≤0.05. Gender and race sub-analyses were also conducted, with associations found with men and non-Caucasian with amputation; O.R = 1.044; [CI: 1.036, 1.053] p≤0.05; race O.R = 2.893; [CI: 2.866, 2.920] p≤0.05.


      Socioeconomic status along with gender and race are associated with non-traumatic lower extremity amputation. These findings add additional perspectives for which populations are disproportionately affected by disease and subsequent health outcomes. The authors anticipate the results presented may further assist in future public health screening methods and interventions.


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