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Treatment of Visceral Artery Aneurysms: Description of a Retrospective Series of 42 Aneurysms in 34 Patients

      Visceral artery aneurysms (VAA) can be treated by revascularization, ligation, or, most often, endovascular techniques depending on clinical presentation, hemodynamic status, and location. From 1975 to 2002 a total of 42 VAA in 34 patients were treated. The lesion involved the splenic artery (SA; 19), pancreaticoduodenal artery (PDA; 6), celiac trunk (CT; 5), superior mesenteric artery (SNA; 4), common hepatic artery (CHA; 3), gastroduodenal artery (GDA; 2), left hepatic artery (LHA; 1), a branch of the inferior mesenteric artery (BIMA; 1), and a branch of the SMA (BSMA; 1). Twenty-seven VAA in 21 patients (64%) were uncomplicated (group I) and 15 VAA in 13 patients (36%) had ruptured (group II) (PDA; 6; CT, 3; SA, 1; CHA, 1; LHA, 1; BSMA, 1; BIMA, 1). In group I VAA were treated by embolization (n = 11), splenectomy (n = 6), bypass (n = 7), ligation (n = 2), and aneurysmorraphy (n = 1). No deaths were observed. The morbidity rate associated with surgical treatment was 12% including hepatic bypass thrombosis without ischemic complications in two cases. The morbidity rate associated with endovascular treatment was 18% including cholecystitis in one case and bile duct stenosis in one case. The VAA recanalization rate following embolization was 9%. In group II, 12 VAA (80%) were treated by ligation in association with splenectomy in two cases and left hepatectomy in one case. Only one bypass procedure was performed and embolization was used to treat two VAA (1 SMA and 1 PDA). The mortality rate was 20% (3/15). The morbidity rate associated with surgical treatment was 46% (6/13) including bile duct stenosis in one case, ischemic cholecystitis in one case, duodenal fistula in one case, pancreatic fistula in one case, bile tract fistula in one case, and colonic ischemia in one case. No patient died after endovascular treatment and the morbidity rate was 50% (1/2) with duodenal stenosis occurring in one case. In sum, VAA can rupture. Emergency cases can be treated by ligation in most cases or by embolization if the hemodynamic status of the patient allows. Regardless of treatment technique, the morbidity and mortality rate remains high after rupture, especially in cases involving PDA. Embolization can be proposed as a first-line treatment for most VAA. Because of the risk of rupture, endovascular or open repair is warranted for VAA and has a favorable prognosis.
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